People with PAD have greater risk

Technology / Applications


Assessment using PainVision

Principle and Definition

PainVision is a device that compares the level of pain to the level of stimulating current (stimulation by pulse current). Pain is quantitatively assessed by measuring the stimulating current that is acknowledged by the patient as being equivalent in sensation to pain. Before evaluating pain, the baseline (Current Perception Threshold) is measured to eliminate individual variability due to various factors.

The pain level is a non-dimensional parameter at zero when no pain is felt, presenting the level of genuine pain in the rage of 2000+.

How to Take Measurements

PainVision takes measurements using electrical stimulation with a low-frequency current (50 Hz, 0 – 256 μA). A stimulating electrode needs to be placed on the inner side of the forearm, avoiding areas of pain. Current Perception Threshold and Pain Equivalent Current are measured three times by gradually increasing the stimulating current. The results will be recorded in the Software, and the pain level will be calculated.

How to Use

By measuring the degree of pain, PainVision allows quantitative assessment of the intensity of pain and the effect of treatment.

Conventional Pain Rating Methods

Since pain is essentially a patient’s subjective sense, assessment of pain is complicated by bias and psychological factors. Therefore, conducting an objective assessment of pain is associated with many difficulties. The followings are the methods that have been used traditionally. Combination of these methods with assessment using PainVision enables multifaceted assessment of pain:

Pain rating scales

Visual Analog Scale : VAS
Numerical Rating Scale : NRS
Verbal Rating Scale : VRS
Face Rating Scale : FRS

Pain rating scales including behavioral aspect

Prince Henry Pain Scale : PRS
Children’s Hospital Estarn Ontario Pain Scale : CHEOPS

Assessment of pain quality, behavior and QOL

McGill Pain Questionnaire : MPQ
SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survery)
PDAS (Pain Disability Assessment Scale)

Although it is difficult to quantify pain, it is possible to quantify the level or degree of pain.
(The information may be used for treatment or research)
Reference: Japan Medical Association Journal) 2009; 138(3): 572-573


PainVision ® PS-2100 quantifies the level of pain using electrical stimulation. Pain management can be made effective and simple during a diagnosis by incorporating “pain level”, displayed as an objective value, in combination with the visual analog scale, a subjective value reflecting psychological factors.


Benefits of quantifying postoperative pain

Quantification of post-operative pain can facilitate the best postoperative management plan (treatment plan) for patients and physicians. By establishing a postoperative management plan, physicians, hospitals and patients can obtain the following benefits:

For Physicians

By quantifying postoperative pain, a physician can reduce unnecessary pain management procedures on an affected area and establish an appropriate treatment plan from postoperative treatment to rehabilitation.

For Hospitals

By establishing a postoperative treatment plan until rehabilitation, a hospital can secure profit from providing high-quality medical services.

For Patients

By optimizing postoperative management, a patient can receive high-quality medical services, safe and secure treatment and postoperative procedures.

  • 1. Quantification of pain enables a patient to share its discomfort level with the physician which may lead to identification of a disease.
  • 2. Psychogenic pain due to chronic pain (e.g., insomnia, depression) may be prevented.
  • 3. Neurogenic pain may be diagnosed and treated appropriately.


PainVision ® PS-2100 quantifies the level of pain using electrical stimulation. Pain management can be made effective and simple during a diagnosis by incorporating “pain level”, displayed as an objective value, in combination with the visual analog scale, a subjective value reflecting psychological factors.

Clinical Departments

Pain clinic, anesthesiology
Pain, treatment evaluation, etc.
Neurosurgery, neurology
Pain, treatment evaluation, etc.
Evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Pain, treatment evaluation, etc.
Plastic surgery
Pain, treatment evaluation, etc.
Dental, oral surgery
Pain, treatment evaluation, etc.
Pain evaluation
Evaluation of age-related neurological problems
Drug efficiency evaluation


Pain management
Clinical investigator
Stress management counselor
Physical/occupational/recreational therapist

Clinical research
Options for Research

PainVision provides various options for research.

In combination with Functional MRI

Oral stimulating electrode

For measurements of Current Perception Threshold in the mouth, PainVision provides specifically designed proprietary electrode and electrode cable.

Related Documents

Archives of PAINVISION® Scientific Paper

Pain Measurement

  • H. Shimazu, (2001), Quantitative Measurement and Evaluation of Pain The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers No.01-5
  • H. Shimazu, (2005), Development of a Quantitative Measurement Method for the Magnitude of Pain Using Painless Electrical Stimulation and Its Evaluation Using Experimental Pain Japanese Society for Medical and Biological Engineering 43(1): 117-123
  • S. Seno, (2006), Determination of quantitative measurement method for the magnitude of pain using painless electrical stimulation and its evaluation using experimental pain The Society of Life Support Engineering Vol.18 No2
  • H. Arita, (2008), Objective measurement of pain: PainVision Pain Clinic Vol.29 No.1
  • H. Arita, (2008), Objective Assessment of Pain Intensity: Device for Quantitative Analysis of Perception and Pain Sensation Anesthesia21 Century No.3-32
  • H. Arita, (2009), Objective measurement of pain The Journal of Japan Society for Clinical Anesthesia Vol.29 No.1, 35~42
  • M. Iseki, (2010), Device for Quantitative Analysis of Perception and Pain Sensation The Japanese journal of medical instrumentation Vo l. 80, No. 3
  • J. Kato, (2009), Inspection instruments for pain clinic PainVision® Pain Clinic Vol.30 No.1
  • M. Yamakage, (2008) Quantitative measurement device for the magnitude of perception and pain - PAINVISION® PS-2100- Journal of Clinical Anesthesia Vol.32/No.1
  • T. Okuda, (2005) A trial of the pain evaluation in the herpes zoster patients – Comparison significance with VAS The Japanese journal of dermatology:115(14), 2373-2380
  • J. Hasegawa, (2008) Evaluation of pain treatment by PainVision Journal of Japan Society of Pain Clinicians Vol.15 No.2
  • A. Nakao, (2009) Measurement of acute pain with PainVision in a postherpetic neuralgia patient Pain Clinic Vol.30 No.4
  • S. Ota, (2009) Application Quantitative measurement device for perception and pain (PainVision) to pharmacological challenges Pain Clinic Vol.30 No.2
  • N. Maekawa, (2009), Can we evaluate pain with PainVision®, a device for quantitative analysis of perception and pain?: A feasibility study of pain in herpes zoster patients The Journal of Japan Society for Clinical Anesthesia Vol.29 No.7, 824~828
  • T. Yamada, (2009), Evaluation of the treatment outcome by an objective assessment with quantitative measurement of the magnitude of pain using electrical stimulation in fibromyalgia patients Clinical Rheumatology and Related Research, 21: 249-255
  • A. Noda, (2009), Objective and quantitative assessment of chronic pain in cancer by PainVision The St. Marianna Medical Journal Vol.37, pp. 351-358
  • T. Nishikami, (2009), Effect of Hip Traction Therapy on the Non-Operated Side after Unilateral Total Hip / Arthroplasty for Bilateral Osteoarthritis of the Hip The Society of Physical Therapy Science 24(4)613–615
  • Y. Udo, (2010), Evaluation of acupuncture treatment for chronic pain patients by PainVision Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion 60-2: 190-196
  • K. Osada, (2011) Development of the Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (JFIQ): psychometric assessments of reliability and validity International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 2011; 14: 74–80
  • H. Matsumura, (2012), Evaluation of pain intensity measurement during the removal of wound dressing material using ‘the PainVision™ system’ for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation in healthy subjects Int Wound J. 2012 Aug;9(4):451-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2011.00911.x. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
  • K. Sanada, (2012), Effects of Paroxetine and Milnacipran on Pain Disorder Showa Univ J Med Sci 24(4), 293~300
  • H. Arita, (2014), Determination of the Effectiveness of Light Therapy for Pain The Journal of Japan Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine Vol.34 No.4 M. Fujii, (2014), Assessment of analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in the treatment of neuropathic pain using Pain Vision®, a quantitative pain measurement system Journal of Japan Society of Pain Clinicians Vol. 21 (2014) No. 2 p. 124-128
  • T. Horie, (2014), The affected skin temperature in the subacute stage predicts postherpetic neuralgia Journal of Japan Society of Pain Clinicians Vol. 21 (2014) No. 1 p. 10-15
  • S. Ohtori, (2014), PainVision Apparatus Is Effective for Assessing Low Back Pain Asian Spine J 2014;8(6):793-798
  • J. Y. Jung, (2014), Efficacy of Acupuncture in Treating Upper Abdominal Pain in Cancer Patients: Study Protocol for A Randomized Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.31, No.1, pp.33-39
  • T. Nishimura, (2014), Age-related and sex-related changes in perfusion index in response to noxious electrical stimulation in healthy subjects Journal of Pain Research 2014:7 91–97
  • J. Kim, (2014), Correlations Between Electrically Quantified Pain Degree, Subjectively Assessed Visual Analogue Scale, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire: A Pilot Study Ann Rehabil Med 2014;38(5):665-672
  • H. Yamaoka, (2014), The Base in Four Types of Lidocaine Preparation (Formulated in Hospital) YAKUGAKU ZASSHI Vol. 134 (2014) No. 2 p. 249-258
  • H. J. Lee, (2015) Acupuncture in Patients with a Vertebral Compression Fracture: A Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled, Pilot Clinical Trial Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2015;18(1):079-085
  • M. Yutaka, (2015), Application of Pain Quantitative Analysis Device for Assessment of Postoperative Pain after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair The Open Orthopaedics Journal, 2015, 9, 89-93

CPT Measurement

  • K. Takahashi, (2008), Current perception thresholds of a body using PainVision –Reproducibility and reliability of the method and physical regional characteristics- The Journal of physical medicine 19(3)
  • O. Hasegawa, (2009), Evaluation of diabetic neuropathy by PainVision Peripheral Nerve 20(1)
  • O. Hasegawa, (2009), Evaluation of entrapment neuropathies by PainVision Neurological Medicine, 71(6)
  • T. Gohda, (2009), Analysis of current perception threshold (CPT) using PainVision PS-2100 in hemodialysis patients Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 42(1) :77 – 83, 2009
  • K. nakamura, (2008), Quantitative evaluation of current perception threshold by perception quantitative measuring device (PainVision) for carpal tunnel syndrome Peripheral Nerve 19(2)
  • S. Seno, (2011), Evaluation of sex and age differences in the perception threshold of body surface against electrical stimulation: measurement of perception threshold to determine the possibility of diabetic neuropathy diagnoses Japanese Society for Medical and Biological Engineering 49(1) :163-169
  • M. Baden, (2011), Evaluation of Diabetic Polyneuropathy by Pain Vision(R) PS-2100, The Device for Quantitative Analysis of Perception and Pain Journal of the Japan Diabetes Society 54(7), 493-498
  • S. Seno (2011), Perception Threshold by the Electrical Stimulation on Oral Cavity and Lip Regions Japanese Society for Medical and Biological Engineering 49(6) :925-931
  • M. Okamoto, (201), Usefulness of the Pain VisionⓇPS-2100, a Device for the Quantitative Analysis of Perception and Pain Sensation, for Evaluating Early Stage Diabetic Polyneuropathy J. Japan Diab. Soc 56(6): 343~349